Wheres

Table of Contents

where

andWhere

orWhere

whereBetween

whereNotBetween

whereColumn

whereExists

whereNotExists

whereLike

whereIn

whereNotIn

whereRaw

whereNull

whereNotNull

Where Methods

where

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression | Function

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query. A function can be passed to begin a nested where statement.

operator

string | Expression

false

The operator to use for the constraint (i.e. "=", "<", ">=", etc.). A value can be passed as the operator and the value left null as a shortcut for equals (e.g. where( "column", 1 ) == where( "column", "=", 1 ) ).

value

any

false

The value with which to constrain the column. An Expression can be passed as well. If a QueryBuilder or Function is passed, it will be used as a subselect expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere methods instead.

Adds a where clause to a query.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.where( "active", "=", 1 );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `active` = ?

Using the where method will parameterize the value passed. If you want to constrain a column to another column, use the whereColumn method.

You can also pass an Expression as the value.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.where( "last_logged_in", ">", query.raw( "NOW()" ) );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `last_logged_in` > NOW()

Any of the following operators can be used in a where clause.

Valid Operators

=

<

>

<=

>=

<>

!=

like

like binary

not like

between

ilike

&

|

^

<<

>>

rlike

regexp

not regexp

~

~*

!~

!~*

similar to

not similar to

When using the "=" constraint, you can use a shortcut and define the value as the second argument.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.where( "active", 1 );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `active` = ?

You may also use dynamic where{Column} statements to simplify this further.

To group where statements together, pass a function to the where clause as the only parameter.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.where( function( q ) {
q.where( "active", 1 )
.where( "last_logged_in", ">", dateAdd( "ww", -1, now() ) )
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE (
`active` = ?
AND
`last_logged_in` > ?
)

This grouping can be nested as many levels as you require.

A Function or QueryBuilder can be used as a subselect expression when passed to value.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.where( "email", "foo" )
.orWhere( "id", "=", function( q ) {
q.select( q.raw( "MAX(id)" ) )
.from( "users" )
.where( "email", "bar" );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `email` = ?
OR `id` = (
SELECT MAX(id)
FROM `users`
WHERE `email` = ?
)

andWhere

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression | Function

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query. A function can be passed to begin a nested where statement.

operator

string | Expression

false

The operator to use for the constraint (i.e. "=", "<", ">=", etc.). A value can be passed as the operator and the value left null as a shortcut for equals (e.g. where( "column", 1 ) == where( "column", "=", 1 ) ).

value

any

false

The value with which to constrain the column. An Expression can be passed as well. If a QueryBuilder or Function is passed, it will be used as a subselect expression.

This method is simply an alias for where with the combinator set to "and".

orWhere

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression | Function

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query. A function can be passed to begin a nested where statement.

operator

string | Expression

false

The operator to use for the constraint (i.e. "=", "<", ">=", etc.). A value can be passed as the operator and the value left null as a shortcut for equals (e.g. where( "column", 1 ) == where( "column", "=", 1 ) ).

value

any

false

The value with which to constrain the column. An Expression can be passed as well. If a QueryBuilder or Function is passed, it will be used as a subselect expression.

This method is simply an alias for where with the combinator set to "or".

whereBetween

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

start

any | Function | QueryBuilder

true

The beginning value of the BETWEEN statement. If a function or QueryBuilder is passed it is used as a subselect expression.

end

any | Function | QueryBuilder

true

The end value of the BETWEEN statement. If a function or QueryBuilder is passed it is used as a subselect expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

negate

boolean

false

false

False for BETWEEN, True for NOT BETWEEN.

Adds a where between clause to the query.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereBetween( "id", 1, 2 );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `id` BETWEEN ? AND ?

If a function or QueryBuilder is passed it is used as a subselect expression.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereBetween(
"id",
function( q ) {
q.select( q.raw( "MIN(id)" ) )
.from( "users" )
.where( "email", "bar" );
},
builder.newQuery()
.select( builder.raw( "MAX(id)" ) )
.from( "users" )
.where( "email", "bar" )
);
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `id` BETWEEN (
SELECT MIN(id)
FROM `users`
WHERE `email` = ?
)
AND (
SELECT MAX(id)
FROM `users`
WHERE `email` = ?
)

whereNotBetween

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

start

any | Function | QueryBuilder

true

The beginning value of the BETWEEN statement. If a function or QueryBuilder is passed it is used as a subselect expression.

end

any | Function | QueryBuilder

true

The end value of the BETWEEN statement. If a function or QueryBuilder is passed it is used as a subselect expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

Adds a where not in clause to the query. This behaves identically to the whereBetween method with the negateflag set to true. See the documentation for whereBetween for usage and examples.

whereColumn

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

first

string | Expression

true

The name of the first column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

operator

string | Expression

true

The operator to use for the constraint (i.e. "=", "<", ">=", etc.). A value can be passed as the operator and the value left null as a shortcut for equals (e.g. where( "column", 1 ) == where( "column", "=", 1 ) ).

second

string | Expression

false

The name of the second column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

Adds a where clause to a query that compares two columns.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereColumn( "first_name", "=", "last_name" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `first_name` = `last_name`

Just as with where, when using "=" as the operator you can use a shorthand passing the second column in as the operator and leaving the second column null.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereColumn( "first_name", "last_name" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `first_name` = `last_name`

Expressions can be passed in place of either column.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereColumn( "first_name", query.raw( "LOWER(first_name)" ) );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `first_name` = LOWER(first_name)

whereExists

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

query

Function | QueryBuilder

true

A function or QueryBuilder instance to be used as the exists subquery.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

negate

boolean

false

false

False for EXISTS, True for NOT EXISTS.

Adds a where exists clause to the query.

It can be configured with a function.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "orders" )
.whereExists( function( q ) {
q.select( q.raw( 1 ) )
.from( "products" )
.whereColumn( "products.id", "orders.id" );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `orders`
WHERE EXISTS (
SELECT 1
FROM `products`
WHERE `products`.`id` = `orders`.`id`
)

It can also be configured with a QueryBuilder instance.

QueryBuilder
var existsQuery = query.newQuery()
.select( q.raw( 1 ) )
.from( "products" )
.whereColumn( "products.id", "orders.id" );
query.from( "orders" )
.whereExists( existsQuery );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `orders`
WHERE EXISTS (
SELECT 1
FROM `products`
WHERE `products`.`id` = `orders`.`id`
)

whereNotExists

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

query

Function | QueryBuilder

true

A function or QueryBuilder instance to be used as the not exists subquery.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

Adds a where not in clause to the query. This behaves identically to the whereExists method with the negateflag set to true. See the documentation for whereExists for usage and examples.

whereLike

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

value

any

false

The value with which to constrain the column. An Expression can be passed as well. If a QueryBuilder or Function is passed, it will be used as a subselect expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

A shortcut for calling where with "like" set as the operator.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereLike( "username", "J%" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `username` LIKE ?

whereIn

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

values

string | array | Expression | Function | QueryBuilder

true

A single value, list of values, or array of values to constrain a column with. Expressions may be used in any place a value is used. Alternatively, a function or QueryBuilder instance can be passed in to be used as a subquery expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

negate

boolean

false

false

False for IN, True for NOT IN.

Adds a where in clause to the query.

The values passed to whereIn can be a single value, a list of values, or an array of values.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "orders" )
.whereIn( "id", [ 1, 4, 66 ] );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `orders`
WHERE `id` IN (?, ?, ?)

Some database grammars have a hard limit on the number of parameters passed to a SQL statement. Keep this in mind while writing your queries.

If a list of values is passed in, it is converted to an array of values using a single comma (",") delimiter.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "orders" )
.whereIn( "id", "1,4,66" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `orders`
WHERE `id` IN (?, ?, ?)

Any value in the list or array can also be passed using a custom parameter type to have more control over the parameter settings.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "orders" )
.whereIn( "id", [ 1, 4, { value = "66", cfsqltype = "CF_SQL_VARCHAR" } ] );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `orders`
WHERE `id` IN (?, ?, ?)

Expressions can be freely mixed in with other values.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "orders" )
.whereIn( "id", [ query.raw( "MAX(id)" ), 4, 66 ] );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `orders`
WHERE `id` IN (MAX(id), ?, ?)

A function or QueryBuilder instance can be passed to be used as a subquery expression instead of a list of values.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereIn( "id", function( q ) {
q.select( "id" )
.from( "users" )
.where( "age", ">", 25 );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE IN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `users`
WHERE `age` > ?
)

You may find a whereExists method performs better for you than a whereIn with a subquery.

whereNotIn

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column or Expression with which to constrain the query.

values

string | array | Expression | Function | QueryBuilder

true

A single value, list of values, or array of values to constrain a column with. Expressions may be used in any place a value is used. Alternatively, a function or QueryBuilder instance can be passed in to be used as a subquery expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

Adds a where not in clause to the query. This behaves identically to the whereIn method with the negateflag set to true. See the documentation for whereIn for usage and examples.

whereRaw

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

sql

string

true

The raw SQL to add to the query.

whereBindings

array

false

[]

Any bindings needed for the raw SQL. Bindings can be simple values or custom parameters.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

Shorthand to add a raw SQL statement to the where clauses.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereRaw(
"id = ? OR email = ? OR is_admin = 1",
[ 1, "foo" ]
);
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE id = ? OR email = ? OR is_admin = 1

whereNull

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column to check if it is NULL. Can also pass an Expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

negate

boolean

false

false

False for NULL, True for NOT NULL.

Adds a where null clause to the query.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereNull( "id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `id` IS NULL

whereNotNull

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

column

string | Expression

true

The name of the column to check if it is NULL. Can also pass an Expression.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause. Valid options are "and" or "or". Avoid passing this parameter explicitly. Where possible use the andWhere and orWhere dynamic methods instead.

negate

boolean

false

false

False for NULL, True for NOT NULL.

Adds a where not in clause to the query. This behaves identically to the whereNull method with the negateflag set to true. See the documentation for whereNull for usage and examples.

Dynamic Where Methods

qb uses onMissingMethod to provide a few different helpers when working with where... methods.

andWhere... and orWhere...

Every where... method in qb can be called prefixed with either and or or. Doing so will call the original method using the corresponding combinator.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.where( "username", "like", "j%" )
.andWhere( function( q ) {
q.where( "isSubscribed", 1 )
.orWhere( "isOnFreeTrial", 1 );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `username` LIKE ?
AND (
`isSubscribed` = ?
OR
`isOnFreeTrial` = ?
)

where{Column}

If you call a method starting with where that does not match an existing qb method, qb will instead call the where method using the rest of the method name as the first column name. (The rest of the arguments will be shifted to account for this.) This also applies to andWhere{Column} and orWhere{Column} method signatures.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.whereUsername( "like", "j%" )
.whereActive( 1 );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
WHERE `username` LIKE ?
AND `active` = ?