Joins

Join clauses range from simple to complex including joining complete subqueries on multiple conditions. qb has your back with all of these use cases.

Table of Contents

join

joinRaw

joinSub

joinWhere

leftJoin

leftJoinRaw

leftJoinSub

newJoin

rightJoin

rightJoinRaw

rightJoinSub

JoinClause

crossJoin

crossJoinRaw

crossJoinSub

join

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string | Expression | JoinClause

true

The name of the table or a Expression object from which the query is based. Alternatively, a configured JoinClause instance can be passed.

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

type

string

false

"inner"

The type of the join. Passing this as an argument is discouraged for readability. Use the dedicated methods like leftJoin and rightJoin where possible.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use the dedicated joinWhere or a join closure where possible.

Applies a join to the query. The simplest join is to a table based on two columns:

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.join( "posts", "users.id", "=", "posts.author_id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

When doing a simple join using = as the operator, you can omit it and pass just the column names:

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.join( "posts", "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

``Expressions are also supported as the table argument (though you may prefer the readability of the joinRaw method):

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.join( query.raw( "posts (nolock)" ), "users.id", "=", "posts.author_id" );
SQL Server
SELECT *
FROM [users]
JOIN posts (nolock)
ON [users].[id] = [posts].[author_id]

Using raw will most likely tie your code to a specific database, so think carefully before using the raw method if you want your project to be database agnostic.

When you need to specify more clauses to join, you can pass a function as the second argument:

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.join( "posts", function( j ) {
j.on( "users.id", "=", "posts.author_id" );
j.on( "users.prefix", "=", "posts.prefix" );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`
AND `users`.`prefix` = `posts`.`prefix`

You can specify where clauses in your joins as well.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.join( "posts", function( j ) {
j.on( "users.id", "=", "posts.author_id" );
j.whereNotNull( "posts.published_date" );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`
AND `posts`.`published_date` IS NOT NULL

Conditions inside a join clause can be grouped using a function.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.join( "posts", function( j ) {
j.on( function( j1 ) {
j1.on( "users.id", "posts.author_id" )
.orOn( "users.id", "posts.reviewer_id" );
} );
j.whereNotNull( "posts.published_date" );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON (
`users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`
OR `users`.`id` = `posts`.`reviewer_id`
)
AND `posts`.`published_date` IS NOT NULL

A preconfigured JoinClause can also be passed to the join function. This allows you to extract shared pieces of code out to different functions.

QueryBuilder
var j = query.newJoin( "contacts" )
.on( "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
query.from( "users" ).join( j );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

joinWhere

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string

true

The raw SQL string to use as the table.

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

type

string

false

"inner"

The type of the join. Passing this as an argument is discouraged for readability. Use the dedicated methods like leftJoin and rightJoin with a join function where possible.

Adds a join to another table based on a WHERE clause instead of an ON clause. WHERE clauses introduce parameters and parameter bindings whereas on clauses join between columns and don't need parameter bindings.

For simple joins, this specifies a column on which to join the two tables:

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.joinWhere( "contacts", "contacts.balance", "<", 100 );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `contacts`
WHERE `contacts`.`balance` < ?

For complex joins, a function can be passed to first. This allows multiple on and where conditions to be applied to the join. See the documentation for join for more information.

joinRaw

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string

true

The raw SQL string to use as the table.

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

type

string

false

"inner"

The type of the join. Passing this as an argument is discouraged for readability. Use the dedicated methods like leftJoinRaw and rightJoinRaw where possible.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

Uses the raw SQL provided to as the table for the join clause. All the other functionality of joinRaw matches the join method. Additionally, there are leftJoinRaw, rightJoinRaw, and crossJoinRaw methods available.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.joinRaw( "posts (nolock)", "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
SQL Server
SELECT *
FROM [users]
JOIN posts (nolock)
ON [users].[id] = [posts].[author_id]

Using joinRaw will most likely tie your code to a specific database, so think carefully before using the joinRaw method if you want your project to be database agnostic.

joinSub

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

alias

string

true

The alias for the derived table.

input

Function | QueryBuilder

true

Either a QueryBuilder instance or a function to define the derived query.

first

string | Expression | Function

true

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

type

string

false

"inner"

The type of the join. Passing this as an argument is discouraged for readability. Use the dedicated methods like leftJoinSub and rightJoinSub where possible.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

Adds a join to a derived table. All the functionality of the join method applies to constrain the query. The derived table can be defined using a QueryBuilder instance:

QueryBuilder
var sub = query.newQuery()
.select( "id" )
.from( "contacts" )
.whereNotIn( "id", [ 1, 2, 3 ] );
query.from( "users as u" )
.joinSub( "c", sub, "u.id", "=", "c.id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users` AS `u`
JOIN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `contacts`
WHERE `id` NOT IN (?, ?, ?)
) AS `c`
ON `u`.`id` = `c`.`id`

Alternatively, a function may be used to define the derived table:

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users as u" )
.joinSub( "c", function ( q ) {
q.select( "id" )
.from( "contacts" )
.whereNotIn( "id", [ 1, 2, 3 ] );
}, "u.id", "=", "c.id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users` AS `u`
JOIN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `contacts`
WHERE `id` NOT IN (?, ?, ?)
) AS `c`
ON `u`.`id` = `c`.`id`

Complex join conditions are also possible by passing a function as the third parameter:

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users as u" )
.joinSub( "c", function ( q ) {
q.select( "id" )
.from( "contacts" )
.whereNotIn( "id", [ 1, 2, 3 ] );
}, function( j ) {
j.on( "u.id", "c.id" );
j.on( "u.type", "c.type" );
} );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users` AS `u`
JOIN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `contacts`
WHERE `id` NOT IN (?, ?, ?)
) AS `c`
ON `u`.`id` = `c`.`id`
AND `u`.`type` = `c`.`type`

leftJoin

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string | Expression | JoinClause

true

The name of the table or a Expression object from which the query is based. Alternatively, a configured JoinClause instance can be passed.

(Note: a JoinClause instance may have a different join type than a left join. The JoinClause instance's join type will be used.)

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "posts" )
.leftJoin( "users", "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `posts`
LEFT JOIN `users`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

leftJoinRaw

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string

true

The raw SQL string to use as the table.

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

Uses the raw SQL provided to as the table for the left join clause. All the other functionality of leftJoinRaw matches the join method.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "posts" )
.leftJoinRaw( "users (nolock)", "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
SQL Server
SELECT *
FROM [posts]
LEFT JOIN users (nolock)
ON [users].[id] = [posts].[author_id]

Using leftJoinRaw will most likely tie your code to a specific database, so think carefully before using the leftJoinRaw method if you want your project to be database agnostic.

leftJoinSub

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

alias

string

true

The alias for the derived table.

input

Function | QueryBuilder

true

Either a QueryBuilder instance or a function to define the derived query.

first

string | Expression | Function

true

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

Adds a left join to a derived table. All the functionality of the joinSub method applies to define and constrain the query.

QueryBuilder
var sub = query.newQuery()
.select( "id" )
.from( "contacts" )
.whereNotIn( "id", [ 1, 2, 3 ] );
query.from( "users as u" )
.leftJoinSub( "c", sub, "u.id", "=", "c.id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users` AS `u`
LEFT JOIN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `contacts`
WHERE `id` NOT IN (?, ?, ?)
) AS `c`
ON `u`.`id` = `c`.`id`

rightJoin

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string | Expression | JoinClause

true

The name of the table or a Expression object from which the query is based. Alternatively, a configured JoinClause instance can be passed.

(Note: a JoinClause instance may have a different join type than a right join. The JoinClause instance's join type will be used.)

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.rightJoin( "posts", "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
RIGHT JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

rightJoinRaw

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string

true

The raw SQL string to use as the table.

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

Uses the raw SQL provided to as the table for the right join clause. All the other functionality of rightJoinRaw matches the join method.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" )
.rightJoinRaw( "posts (nolock)", "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
SQL Server
SELECT *
FROM [users]
LEFT JOIN posts (nolock)
ON [users].[id] = [posts].[author_id]

Using rightJoinRaw will most likely tie your code to a specific database, so think carefully before using the rightJoinRaw method if you want your project to be database agnostic.

rightJoinSub

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

alias

string

true

The alias for the derived table.

input

Function | QueryBuilder

true

Either a QueryBuilder instance or a function to define the derived query.

first

string | Expression | Function

true

The first column or Expression to join the table on. Alternatively, a function can be passed to configure complex join statements.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the join clause.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression to join the table on.

where

boolean

false

false

Sets if the value of second should be interpreted as a column or a value. Passing this as an argument is discouraged. Use a closure to define the where clauses where possible.

Adds a right join to a derived table. All the functionality of the joinSub method applies to define and constrain the query.

QueryBuilder
var sub = query.newQuery()
.select( "id" )
.from( "contacts" )
.whereNotIn( "id", [ 1, 2, 3 ] );
query.from( "users as u" )
.rightJoinSub( "c", sub, "u.id", "=", "c.id" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users` AS `u`
RIGHT JOIN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `contacts`
WHERE `id` NOT IN (?, ?, ?)
) AS `c`
ON `u`.`id` = `c`.`id`

crossJoin

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string | Expression | JoinClause

true

The name of the table or a Expression object from which the query is based. Alternatively, a configured JoinClause instance can be passed.

(Note: a JoinClause instance may have a different join type than a cross join. The JoinClause instance's join type will be used.)

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" ).crossJoin( "posts" );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
CROSS JOIN `posts`

crossJoinRaw

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string

true

The raw SQL string to use as the table.

Uses the raw SQL provided to as the table for the cross join clause. Cross joins cannot be further constrained with on or where clauses.

QueryBuilder
query.from( "users" ).crossJoinRaw( "posts (nolock)" );
SQL Server
SELECT *
FROM [users]
CROSS JOIN posts (nolock)

Using crossJoinRaw will most likely tie your code to a specific database, so think carefully before using the crossJoinRaw method if you want your project to be database agnostic.

crossJoinSub

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

alias

string

true

The alias for the derived table.

input

Function | QueryBuilder

true

Either a QueryBuilder instance or a function to define the derived query.

Adds a cross join to a derived table. The derived table can be defined using a QueryBuilder instance or a function just as with joinSub. Cross joins cannot be constrained, however.

QueryBuilder
var sub = query.newQuery()
.select( "id" )
.from( "contacts" )
.whereNotIn( "id", [ 1, 2, 3 ] );
query.from( "users as u" ).crossJoinSub( "c", sub );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users` AS `u`
CROSS JOIN (
SELECT `id`
FROM `contacts`
WHERE `id` NOT IN (?, ?, ?)
)

newJoin

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

table

string | Expression

true

The name of the table or a Expression object from which the query is based.

type

string

false

"inner"

The type of the join. Valid types are inner, left, right, or cross.

Creates a new JoinClause. A JoinClause is a specialized version of a QueryBuilder. You may call on or orOn to constrain the JoinClause. You may also call any where methods.

Creating a JoinClause directly is useful when you need to share a join between different queries. You can create and configure the JoinClause in a function and pass it to queries as needed.

QueryBuilder
var j = query.newJoin( "contacts" )
.on( "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
query.from( "users" ).join( j );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

Although a JoinClause can be passed to join, leftJoin, rightJoin, and crossJoin, the type of the JoinClause will override the type of the function.

QueryBuilder
// This is still an inner join because
// the JoinClause is an inner join
var j = query.newJoin( "contacts", "inner" )
.on( "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
query.from( "users" ).leftJoin( j );
MySQL
-- This is still an inner join because
-- the JoinClause is an inner join
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

JoinClause

A JoinClause is a specialized version of a QueryBuilder. You may call on or orOn to constrain the JoinClause. You may also call any where methods.

on

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expressionof the condition. Alternatively, a function can be passed to nest conditions with parenthesis.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the condition.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression of the condition.

combinator

string

false

"and"

The boolean combinator for the clause (e.g. "and" or "or").

Applies a join condition to the JoinClause. An alias for whereColumn.

QueryBuilder
var j = query.newJoin( "contacts" )
.on( "users.id", "posts.author_id" );
query.from( "users" ).join( j );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`

orOn

Name

Type

Required

Default

Description

first

string | Expression | Function

false

The first column or Expressionof the condition. Alternatively, a function can be passed to nest conditions with parenthesis.

operator

string

false

"="

The boolean operator for the condition.

second

string | Expression

false

The second column or Expression of the condition.

Applies a join condition to the JoinClause using an or combinator. An alias for orWhereColumn.

QueryBuilder
var j = query.newJoin( "contacts" )
.on( "users.id", "posts.author_id" )
.orOn( "users.id", "posts.reviewer_id" );
query.from( "users" ).join( j );
MySQL
SELECT *
FROM `users`
JOIN `posts`
ON `users`.`id` = `posts`.`author_id`
OR `users`.`id` = `posts`.`reviewer_id`